Okay, so a couple of weeks ago(I took a while to complete this, sorry), I did a post asking people what they understood the rules of vision to be, it asked perhaps too many questions, and looking more into it, it lacked clear & defined terms for people to understand(just like Heroes vision, as you'll find out if you delve deeper into this posts comment, as this is a long one, it won't all fit in the topic)
This post is also all too long, and gets really quite run-on sentencey at times, with lots of senseless rambling
Things to know before going forward
Vision starts from the center of all units, having a larger radius doesn't mean you can see further
Vision tests from the center of almost all units, if the border of something is outside of the fog of war, you can't see them, if the center of something is outside of the fog of war, you can see them
Question 1: You are damaged by an enemy Basic Attack, what happens?
Answer: If the attacking enemy is not revealed already, they'll be revealed to you for 2 seconds, if they're already revealed to you through this and not revealed naturally(meaning you can see them inside of the fog of war or because you are in the same shrub as them), then that 2 seconds will be refreshed, note that this reveal is unlike all others, in that it doesn't actually remove stealth – that happens through other measures when dealing damage reveals you.
Because of how this works, it's very possible to damage someone while you are in vision, and then quickly retreat back out of vision, and you'd only be revealed while you are actually outside of the fog of war, whereas if you exclusively attack someone from the fog of war, you'll be revealed for 2 seconds each time you damage them. This is true for most forms of damage.
Question 2: You are damaged by an enemy Ability that deals standard spell damage, like Hanzo's Storm Bow, what happens?
Answer: As above, standard spell damage is one of those things that will almost always reveal you, but there are some notable exceptions, like Tyrande's Sentinel, which will not reveal her, or spell damage that is executed as damage over time(although most damage over time effects will cause them to deal either the first chunk of damage as standard damage, or deal a negligible amount of damage, which then causes that occurrence to reveal them)
Question 3: An enemy places a damage over time effect on you, what happens?
Answer: We answered this above – in most cases, this will reveal them to you. The exceptions where it doesn't are Thrall's Ancestral Wrath, Anub'arak's Cryptweave, and Ana's Shrike when applied through Overdose(Sleep Dart does not reveal Ana), similar functioning effects of "only deals damage over time" to compare to that do are things like Whitemane's Purge the Wicked, Xul's Poison Nova, or Blaze's Combustion, which all do reveal them on application
Question 4: You are damaged by an enemy ability that deals damage over time, what happens?
Answer: See the previous answer – most do reveal on application, but none that I could see revealed from their damage over time, not even Living Bomb's or Conflagration's area of effect portions.
Question 5: You are damaged by an enemy passive effect emanating from their Hero, like Johanna's Holy Fury or Leoric's Burning Despair, what happens?
Answer: This is treated as standard spell damage, with the exception that most of them can't be modified by damage modifiers, and they're mostly set to not aggravate towers
Question 6: You are damaged by a "set and forget" ability, like Junkrat's Steel Trap or Abathur's Toxic Nest, what happens?
Answer: This is a relatively limited number of abilities, and you could stretch the list by including things like Kel'Thuzad's Glacial Spike, but purely using the logic of it being something when ran over, it deals damage and is removed, the rule is that it does not reveal the hero that placed it
Question 7: You are damaged by a "set and activate" ability, like Qhira's Blood Rage Active or Junkrat's Concussion Mine, what happens?
Answer: Similar question as above, extremely limited field, with there only being 1 other entry I could find: Lunara's Crippling Spores. In this instance, Qhira and Junkrat's do reveal them, while Lunara's Crippling Spores does not reveal her, but it also doesn't deal damage
Question 8: You are damaged by a persistent area of effect ability, like Deathwing's Cataclysm or Azmodan's Black Pool, what happens?
Answer: This one is rather murky, and there's a few ways you can define this type of ability, and I don't think there's any firm ruling that will cover all of your grounds, so here is the list as I see it, in picture form, where that it predominately reveals the one who placed the effect, if you include more things like Zarya's Graviton Surge, Rag's Living Meteor or Gul'dan's Rain of Destruction, that grows more in favour of revealing the attacker, with most revealing the attacker, but some not
Question 9: You are damaged by a "true global" ability, meaning Ana's Eye of Horus or Fenix's Planet Cracker, what happens?
Answer: This is another one that is rather cloudy – those two examples do reveal, and so does Consume Souls, but Suppression Pulse, Purifier Beam, Lava Wave, Blunt Force Gun, Sentinel, and Apocalypse don't, it all depends on how you want to define true global, and these all do fit within that criteria, so the answer is going to have to be that it doesn't reveal the attacker, even though those two listed in the question are that it doesnt, which feels a bit awkward
Question 10: You are damaged by a unit summoned by an enemy Hero, what happens?
Answer: The unit that deals it is revealed, but the damage you may think is dealt by the summon won't always be, which I'll go into hero-by-hero in the comments below, there's a lot of Heroes with a lot of different interactions
Question 11: A unit summoned by you is damaged by an enemy that would otherwise reveal them, what happens?
Answer: They are revealed, so too would they be if they attacked anything that didn't have natural vision of them, so beware clearing minion waves from shrubs – they can still see you doing it!
Question 12: You are killed, what happens?
Answer: This one is a "my bad" scenario – as the answer is annoyingly "none of the above", where that the area is not revealed to you at all, but targets within range of you are(this is also true for other units, by the way), here is a video demonstrating this, where you can see Sylvanas using Hearthstone, but you can't see the Spray she leaves on the ground. Note that Nova's Holo Decoy actually reveals in a radius around her when it dies, I think this is simply because someone changed that at one point, and no one really noticed it.
Question 13: You damage an enemy Hero with a Basic Attack targeted at them, what happens? Answer: With the exception of Zarya and Xul's Cursed Strikes, Basic Attacks do not reveal the primary target. This is in relation to a standalone system that some abilities have, where upon impacting a foe, they are revealed for 2 seconds, regardless of if they are already in vision or not
Question 14: You damage an enemy Hero with an empowered Basic Attack that deals Spell Damage, like Li-Ming's Cannoneer or Kel'Thuzad's Chilling Touch, what happens?
Answer: Out of 14 ways that Basic Attacks can directly deal spell damage, none of them reveal, Medivh's Raven also doesn't reveal, but I didn't think of it when I compiled that list, only just now
Question 15: You damage an enemy Hero with a cleave or bouncing Basic Attack, like Mephisto's Shard of Hate or Tracer's Ricochet, what happens?
Answer: 7 out of 31 don't reveal, so the answer is that they don't reveal, of note is that some of these do reveal the area in which they can hit things, which you can see here, note that this list doesn't include bouncers or extra missiles(none of them reveal the area) by design. Realised afterwards that Tassadar's Archon was something I missed just as I'm writing this now, and it does reveal targets hit by the splash(not the main target, btw), but not the area, which doesn't overly impact the results
Question 16: You hit a Basic Attack against an enemy beside a shrub that you do not have vision inside of with a bouncing Basic Attack like Zuljin's A Surprise For Ya or Maiev's Nashia's Memento, what happens?
Answer: Noting that this is for bouncing basic attacks, not cleavesplash(which can hit fog of war'd, shrub'd or cloaked), so the list is shorter than those above, and because they're similar, I'll also count "extra missiles" type bounce, which does make an impact on the result, so the end result is that generally no
Question 17: You hit a Basic Attack against an enemy beside another enemy who is Stealthed & not revealed with a bouncing Basic Attack like Zuljin's A Surprise For Ya or Maiev's Nashia's Memento, what happens?
Answer: They can't, as they're seen as not being visible, and those that can targets not visible can't target them either
Question 18: You deal area of effect damage at a targeted area, like Kael's Flamestrike or Jaina's Blizzard, what happens?
Answer: The area is always revealed after the damage is dealt, and for non-instant effects, it usually reveals the area before the damage is dealt, where the exception is that projectile-based targets area of effect abilities generally don't reveal beforehand, like Snow Blind or Grenade don't, but Azmodan's Globe of Annihilation does
Question 19: You damage an enemy Hero with a targeted area effect ability, like Kael's Flamestrike or Jaina's Blizzard, what happens?
Answer: Out of 46 abilities, 22 of them reveal targets hit, so it's actually pretty split, with most not
Question 20: You fire a projectile skillshot, like Ana's Healing Dart or Hanzo's Scatter Arrow into an area where you do not have vision, what happens?
Answer: Very nearly all of them reveal the area they travel through, with some only revealing the area around the missile itself, and for the purposes of this, I'd consider those similar enough, out of 108 projectiles(casting a wide net here, not all projectiles are skillshots), out of the ones that you could argue are skillshots, Fire Stomp, Storm Bolt, March of the Murlocs(sketchy), Banelings and Isolation use the unit's sight to reveal, which is absolutely not a considerable amount. I've got some files I'll be sharing after the fact that will go into this a bit, which you'll see after all of the answers
Question 21: You damage an enemy Hero with a projectile skillshot, like Hanzo's Scatter Arrow or Jaina's Frostbolt, what happens?
Answer: Mostly, you could debate including some of these as skillshots, and so it mostly gets more and more that do reveal targets
Question 22: You throw a projectile area of effect, like Azmodan's Globe of Annihilation or Tyrael's El'druin's Might over an area where you do not have vision, what happens?
Answer: 15 out of 25 reveal around the missile, and as above, all reveal the area they effect. Unless you want to count Loot Hoard, then they don't. Here's a list
Question 23: You deal area of effect damage in an area around you, like Muradin's Thunder Clap or Cassia's Surge of Light, what happens?
Answer: 25 out of 40 do reveal the area, so the answer is that the area is generally revealed
Question 24: You deal damage to an enemy Hero with an area of effect ability around you, like Muradin's Thunder Clap or Cassia's Surge of Light, what happens?
Answer: 17 out of 40 do reveal targets, so the answer is generally targets aren't revealed, take heed when comparing this list and the previous one, as there are some that don't reveal the area and don't reveal targets, so they lack good feedback that you've hit something, it's especially noticeable with Defense Matrix and Surge of Light
Question 25: You place a damage over time effect on an enemy Hero, what happens?
Answer: The thing that makes this difficult is that a very good deal of abilities that apply damage over time also deal damage otherwise, and that might reveal them, so we're just going to have to count those in, and here is the list, which I'd say that it generally does reveal, but it's not strange when it doesn't.
Question 26: You deal damage to an enemy Hero with a damage over time effect, what happens?
Answer: Dealing damage with damage over time doesn't reveal, unless it's on the application, then as above, it sometimes does, sometimes doesn't
Question 27: You deal damage to an enemy Hero with a passive effect emanating from you, like Johanna's Holy Fury or Leoric's Burning Despair, what happens?
Answer: I went a bit broad with this, but here's the list, as you can see, most do. The Burning-rage like effect on Azmonda's Demon Warrior's doesn't
Question 28: A minion you have summoned deals damage to an enemy Hero, what happens?
Answer: They don't get revealed
Question 30: You damage an enemy with a "set and activate" ability, like Qhira's Blood Rage or Junkrat's Concussion Mine, what happens?
Answer: This is a super short list, and the answer is that they aren't revealed, but Junkrat's Concussion Mine does grant vision, so that's a thing, but once it's gone that's gone, too
Question 30/31: You place a trap that an enemy may run over to activate and destroy, like Junkrat's Steel Trap, what happens? You place a trap that may be activated later to deal damage to enemies around it, like Junkrat's Concussion Mine, what happens?
Answer: These grant vision
Question 32: You place an object that deals no damage by itself, but applies some kind of debuff to enemies in the area around it, like Rehgar's Earthfury Totem, what happens?
Answer: I actually couldn't find things that fulfilled this other than Rehgar's Earthbind(not Earthfury, you dope) Totem, and it grants sight around it, larger than the area it effects, even.
Question 34: You damage an enemy with a persistent area of effect ability, like Deathwing's Cataclysm or Azmodan's Black Pool, what happens?
Answer: Generally, it's inconsistent, but leaning towards not revealing, some of these could very well be removed from this list, like Xplodium Bomb
Question 35: You place a persistent area of effect ability, like Deathwing's Catacylsm or Azmodan's Black Pool, what happens?
Answer: With the exception of 2 effects, the area is revealed
Question 36: You damage an enemy with a "true global" ability, like Ana's Eye of Horus or Fenix's Planet Cracker, what happens?
Answer: Here's a list, some stuff you might want to exclude from being global, like I wouldn't count Apocalypse or Consume Souls, and the answer is it's 50-50, if you exclude Skyfall, which I think is pretty reasonable, then it shifts in favour of revealing
Question 37: You fire a "true global" ability, like Ana's Eye of Horus or Fenix's Planet Cracker, what happens?
Answer: Generally, they do grant vision of the area they effect, and I'd say that Kel'Thuzad's not doing so is a very deliberate decision, and I agree with it
Question 38: You enter Stealth inside the vision radius of an enemy Fort or Keep, what happens?
Answer: It's as people generally answered – you are revealed to the enemy, note that Unrevealable does prevent this reveal, but that's so short that it doesn't really matter
Question 39: You remain stationary while in Stealth inside the vision radius of an enemy Fort or Keep without being damaged, what happens?
Answer: I kind of screwed up the possible answers here, but the answers are mostly correct as close as they can be, you can't enter "invisible stealth", as would usually when remaining stationary and cloaked, the 1.5 second timer won't even start in this situation
Question 40: You remain stationary while in Stealth without being adjacent or inside any area without being damaged, what happens?
Answer: Yeah, this one is very well known, you enter invisible stealth after 1.5 seconds.
Question 41: You remain stationary while in Stealth while inside an objective area, like the Dragon Shire Sun or Moon shrines without being damaged, what happens?
The outline does remain visible, but if the objective happens to expire or be removed somehow while doing this, you'll instantly enter invisible stealth without having wait a further 1.5 seconds, so long as you haven't moved and have remained cloaked for the past 1.5 seconds
Question 42: You place a fake version of your Hero, like Nova's Holo Decoy or Samuro's Mirror Image inside the vision radius of an enemy Fort or Keep, what happens?
Answer: Fake Heroes are only revealed to be fake Heroes if they gain the cloaked condition while inside the search radius of the Fort, Keep or Core revealer – otherwise, they appear as standard Heroes. This is because that revealer requires that targets it wants to reveal are cloaked. Here's a video demonstrating this, look at the right-side of the screen, as it is showing the perspective of the enemy of Samuro(recording this was hard with only 2 monitors, btw)
Question 43: How confident are you that what you expect to happen in these answers is what actually happens?
The people that responded generally had things mostly right, and I think the incorrect answers mostly come down to Blizzard being inconsistent in how things are done, more than anything else.
So, now as something to back up all of this, in the comments I'll be posting a chain of comments that has a bunch of other things explain in greater depth, hero-by-hero, which will kind of show how this took more time to compile than I expected it to.
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